when-present<#else>when-missing. (These only cover the last step of the expression; to cover the whole expression, use parenthessis: (myOptionVar.foo)!myDefault, (myOptionVar.foo)?? The failing instruction (FTL stack trace): ---------- ==> ${eachProduct.imageUrl} [in template "MultiBanner/bodyHorizontalPB.ftl" at line 8, column 120] #include "bodyHorizontalPB.ftl" [in template "MultiBanner/Main.ftl" at line 7, column 9] #if widgetResponse.contents[0].params... [in template "MultiBanner/Main.ftl" at line 5, column 5] ---------- Java stack trace (for programmers): ---------- freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException: [... Exception message was already printed; see it above ...] at freemarker.core.InvalidReferenceException.getInstance(InvalidReferenceException.java:98) at freemarker.core.EvalUtil.coerceModelToString(EvalUtil.java:382) at freemarker.core.Expression.evalAndCoerceToString(Expression.java:115) at freemarker.core.DollarVariable.accept(DollarVariable.java:76) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visitByHiddingParent(Environment.java:286) at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock$Context.runLoop(IteratorBlock.java:193) at freemarker.core.Environment.visitIteratorBlock(Environment.java:509) at freemarker.core.IteratorBlock.accept(IteratorBlock.java:103) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.Environment.include(Environment.java:1712) at freemarker.core.Include.accept(Include.java:172) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.IfBlock.accept(IfBlock.java:84) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visitByHiddingParent(Environment.java:286) at freemarker.core.ConditionalBlock.accept(ConditionalBlock.java:86) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.MixedContent.accept(MixedContent.java:93) at freemarker.core.Environment.visit(Environment.java:265) at freemarker.core.Environment.process(Environment.java:243) at freemarker.template.Template.process(Template.java:277) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.processTemplate(FreeMarkerView.java:367) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.doRender(FreeMarkerView.java:284) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.freemarker.FreeMarkerView.renderMergedTemplateModel(FreeMarkerView.java:234) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.AbstractTemplateView.renderMergedOutputModel(AbstractTemplateView.java:167) at org.springframework.web.servlet.view.AbstractView.render(AbstractView.java:303) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.render(DispatcherServlet.java:1243) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.processDispatchResult(DispatcherServlet.java:1027) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doDispatch(DispatcherServlet.java:971) at org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet.doService(DispatcherServlet.java:893) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.processRequest(FrameworkServlet.java:969) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.doGet(FrameworkServlet.java:860) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:622) at org.springframework.web.servlet.FrameworkServlet.service(FrameworkServlet.java:845) at javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet.service(HttpServlet.java:729) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:291) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.apache.tomcat.websocket.server.WsFilter.doFilter(WsFilter.java:52) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.internalDoFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:239) at org.apache.catalina.core.ApplicationFilterChain.doFilter(ApplicationFilterChain.java:206) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardWrapperValve.invoke(StandardWrapperValve.java:217) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardContextValve.invoke(StandardContextValve.java:106) at org.apache.catalina.authenticator.AuthenticatorBase.invoke(AuthenticatorBase.java:502) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardHostValve.invoke(StandardHostValve.java:142) at org.apache.catalina.valves.ErrorReportValve.invoke(ErrorReportValve.java:79) at org.apache.catalina.valves.AbstractAccessLogValve.invoke(AbstractAccessLogValve.java:616) at org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngineValve.invoke(StandardEngineValve.java:88) at org.apache.catalina.connector.CoyoteAdapter.service(CoyoteAdapter.java:518) at org.apache.coyote.http11.AbstractHttp11Processor.process(AbstractHttp11Processor.java:1091) at org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol$AbstractConnectionHandler.process(AbstractProtocol.java:673) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.NioEndpoint$SocketProcessor.doRun(NioEndpoint.java:1500) at org.apache.tomcat.util.net.NioEndpoint$SocketProcessor.run(NioEndpoint.java:1456) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1142) at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:617) at org.apache.tomcat.util.threads.TaskThread$WrappingRunnable.run(TaskThread.java:61) at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:745)