This book focuses on issues in clinical practice and research that are of general interest. The articles primarily focus on understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of diseases, their prevention, and therapy.The topics addressed include cardiovascular regulation with regard to blood pressure and heart rate variability, and to coupling blood pressure changes with subarachnoid fluid oscillations. In addition, the book discusses recent advances in the diagnostics of and targeted molecular therapy for renal and pancreatic malignancies, growth disorders, vitamin D and calcium homeostasis in children in the context of neonatal urolithiasis, and neurosurgical interventions in multifarious age-related diseases of the vertebrae. Neuropsychological aspects of patients' quality of life and of shaping medical staff's attitude toward patients are also addressed. The respective articles are intended to build a bridge between basic and clinical research. Further, the book enhances the current body of knowledge on diagnostics and patient treatment and offers valuable new perspectives on practical clinical issues. As such, it offers a unique resource for clinicians, family physicians, medical scholars, and professionals engaged in patient management.