This monograph is intended to compile the lectures presented at the 4th Annual Symposium "Cardiac Surgery:1992" held at the Frenchman's Reef Beach Resort, St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands, November 7-10, 1991. This symposium was organized by the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery and the School of Cardiovascular Perfusion, Cooper Hospital/University Medical Center, Camden, New Jersey and sponsored by the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School at Camden, Philadelphia Academy of Cardiovascular Perfusion and the American Society of Extracorporeal Technology -Region II. The symposium was devoted to cardiothoracic surgeons, cardiologists, cardiovascular perfusionists, and nurses involved in the management of the cardiac surgical patient. Therefore, the context of the book represents the multidisciplinary nature of cardiac surgery at its present level of development. The contributors to this book have critically examined their experience and discussed controversial issues regarding cardiac pathophysiology, surgical indications, operative techniques, and long term care and outcome. The co-editors wish to express their gratitude for the contributors' efforts in the production of this manuscript. We would also like to thank the members of the Organizing Committee, Jane V. Stewart MSN, RN, CCRN, Roger A. Vertrees BA, CCP, Rosemary Volosin, MSN, RN, Rosemary Morrone and Paul R. Cappola BS, CCP, who have greatly contributed to the success of the symposium.