This book was originally published by Claeys and Casteels, now formally part of Edward Elgar Publishing. This book focuses on the EU ETS, the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme, backbone of the European Union strategy to combat climate change, and its industry competitiveness implications. In the light of the discussion of the revision for the coming years, it aims to provide a toolbox of key elements to understand its functioning and to reflect on crucial improvements.Specifically, besides a general overview of the first phases of the scheme and current difficulties, the book aims to (i) deploy an energy-intensive, sector-level analysis, with both reference to academic literature (ex ante and ex post studies, paying special attention to the underlying assumptions) and stakeholders positions on the carbon leakage issue; (ii) present an overview of the existing ETS policy measures and worldwide experiences; (iii) reflect on the ongoing reform for the post-2020 period, starting from the European Commission's proposal and entering the technical and political debate taking place within the European institutions."The EU ETS and the European industry competitiveness" provides the reader with a full understanding of the system, presenting problems, policy options, design aspects and global insights. It aims to identify potential improvements and to draw lessons for the coming years and the future phases, assessing if the current reform is actually on track to adequately protect business competitiveness.